Interacting with a database, can be a regular task of a developer, and for that we would like to ensure that we are developing and testing in situations close to a real implementation; therefore, using the same database as in production can help detecting issues early.
However, setting up an entire database server for development, can be cumbersome. Hopefully nowadays, modern operating systems like Linux have great tools and features that we could take advantage of.
In particular, I would like to setup a simple database locally using docker, and storing the data in memory.
First, we get the image of PostgresSQL according to the platform, for example:
docker pull fedora/postgresql
Then, I could create a tmpfs, for the data and mount it
Now we could run the database container using this directory:
The first line indicates the name for the container we are running (if is not specified, docker will put a default one); the second line is the important one, since it is what makes the mapping of directories, meaning that will map the directory for the tmpfs on the host, mounted as /var/lib/pgsql/data inside the container (the target). The later directory is the one PostgreSQL uses by default for initializing and storing the data of the database. The Z at the end of the mapping is an internal detail for flagging that directory in case SELinux is enabled, so it will not fail due to a permissions errors (because containers run as another user, and we are mounting something that might be out of that scope) .
The rest of the three lines, are environment variables that docker will use for the initialization of the database (they are optional, and defaults will be used, in case they are not provided). Then follows the port mapping, which in this case indicates to map the port 5432 inside the container to the same one on the host. And finally, the name of the docker image we will run.
Once this is running, it would look like we have an actual instance of PostgreSQL up and running on our machine (actually we do, but it is inside a container :-), so we can connect with any client (even a Python application, etc.).
For example, if we want to use the psql client with the container, the command would be:
If we have PostgreSQL installed, we could simply start a new instance as our user with the command (postgres ...) and pass the -D parameter with the desired path where the database is going to store the data (which will be the tmpfs/ramdisk). This would be another way of achieving the same.
Regardless the implementations, here are some potential applications:
- Local development without requiring disk storage, and running faster at the same time.
- Unit testing: unit tests should be fast, granted. Sometimes, it makes perfect sense to run the tests against an actual database (practicality beats purity), even if this makes them “integration/functional” tests. In this regard, having a lightweight database container running locally could achieve the goal without compromising performance.
- Isolation: (this only applies for the container approach), running PostgreSQL in a docker container, encapsulates the libraries, tools, packages, etc. in docker, so the rest of the system does not have to maintain much other packages installed. Think of if as a sort of “virtual environment” for packages.
All in all, I think it’s an interesting approach, worth considering, at least to have alternatives when working in projects that require intense interaction with the database.